Dental implant treatment is a tested and safe process which protocol has been examined in the last 50 years. Since the mid -60s a Swedish doctor Per Ingvar Branemark, considered as the founder of the contemporary implantology, has been examining the processes in the bone after dental implant insertion. During over 40 years of his research, he has elaborated the implantology protocol which delivers patients the best treatment method. Original way of implant process was divided into 2 stages with the 3-6 months interval between needed for dental implant healing.
Stage 1 – Implant diagnosis
The first consultation visit before implant treatment is aimed to show a patient the most detailed treatment plan, time and costs of treatment. In order to carry the treatment in a proper way, the implantologist has to know the general health condition of a patient.
Contraindications for dental implants surgery are as follows:
- mental disease;
- bone disease;
- patients with cancer during radiotherapy;
- AIDS, alcoholism, drug addiction;
- people under 18 years old (not completed skeletal growth);
- rheumatic disease;
- diabates (only unregulated one);
- very bad condition of oral hygiene;
- people addicted to smoking;
- some respiratory diseases;
It is necessary to inform your doctor about current medications, medical history, current disease and possible treatment. Patients in good general health condition do not have to take additional examination.
The examination which is necessary to plan dental implant treatment properly is taking X-ray photos. The basic X-ray photo needed for the implant treatment is panoramic X-ray. This photo shows all the bone structures useful for the implantation. According to it, the doctor can plan where, how many and what type of dental implants can be used. Unfortunately, this photo does not show the bone cross-section and its width, so the doctor has to estimate it with clinical examination which is not always possible.
In order to plan the complete surgery, implantologists more and more often order CT (3D) which shows all the necessary anatomical structures and dimensions in 3D technology. This examination protects both a patient and a doctor against unpleasant surprises during the surgery. This visualization helps doctor to plan virtually all the surgery with special computer programs and then performs it accurately in reality. Accurate dimensions deliver the length and width of a dental implant inserted in a patient’s mouth in order not to damage the nerves rami or bone maxillary sinus. CT examination helps to create 3D image of facial structures. According to it, a doctor can analyse additionally even the most complicated cases before the surgery. 3D reconstruction shows the real skeletal element structure which are situated under the soft tissues. In our clinic the radiology lab is equipped with modern 3D CT device.
II Surgical stage
Surgical stage – when we insert one or some dental implants in the accurate position in the bone to prepare the base for aesthetic crown or a bridge. This surgery should be performed with less traumatic surgical technology, in our clinic we use special, modern system of supersonic piezosurgery. A dental implant should be pre-stabilized in the bone but for the further increase, it is closed under the gum for few weeks. The time depends on the amount and quality of the surrounding bone tissue. Between these stages there is the process of tight implant and bone accretion which lasts from 3 to 6 months depending individually (according to Branemark). Continuous technological development and research on the best implant surface forming allow to shorten this time significantly.
When speaking about Osseospeed dental implants made by Astra Tech, this time is from 1.5 to 3 months. Implants with hydroscope surface SLAactive made by the Swedish company Straumann need only 4 weeks.
III Prosthetic stage
Prosthetic stage when a crown, bridge or prosthesis on a dental implant is formed. This stage is performed during 3-4 visits and lasts 2-3 weeks. Nowadays, in our clinic we use the Cerec 3D system which shortens this stage up to one, longer visit. When we rebuild more than two teeth, possibly two visits are needed.